Picasso said, “Every child is an artist. The problem is how to remain an artist when we grow up” and Oliver Jeffers replied, “I worked out how and never stopped”[1]. Oliver Jeffers was born in 1977 in Australia, was raised in Northern Ireland and is now working and living in Brooklyn, producing artwork that takes on many forms. Perhaps best known for his internationally acclaimed and award winning picture books, Jeffers is also a fine artist travelling the globe exhibiting his work as well as having an animation, jewellery, installations and collaborative work to add to his accomplishments[2].

              Jeffers wanted to produce art even from an early age and liked to combine words and imagery in his work[3]. It was only while studying Visual Communication at the University of Ulster[4] he appreciated that by truly combining these aspects he could create picture books and share his love and talent for storytelling[5]. Initially the work he produced was a series of paintings that in themselves told a narrative, but then turned out to be his first picture book[6]How to Catch a Star, published in 2004[7].

              The inspiration for this first published story originated from a moment spent stargazing on a jetty[8] but the origins of parts of Jeffers’ character design lies with Maurice Sendak. In an article that Jeffers wrote on Sendak he comments on how he loved the story Where the Wild Things Are as a child and that although he wanted to develop his own style as an artist, he wanted to pay one ‘very direct and visual tribute’ to an illustrator who was so influential in his childhood. Jeffers does this by dressing his central character (the Boy who goes on to feature in subsequent books by Jeffers) in a red and white striped jumper like the one worn by Jeffers’ ‘favourite monster in Sendak’s most famous picture book’[9].

Fig. 1, Sendak, Where the Wild Things Are

Fig. 1, Sendak, Where the Wild Things Are

Fig. 2, Jeffers, How to Catch a Star

Fig. 2, Jeffers, How to Catch a Star

There are other similarities that we can draw between Jeffers and Maurice Sendak. Firstly, Sendak ‘refused to treat children like dumb idiots but rather as fully formed people facing real emotions’[10] – an opinion likewise shared by Jeffers. Oliver Jeffers repeatedly talks about how he does not think of his storybooks as ‘children’s’ books as he does not see himself as writing for children – rather that he is writing for himself. Sendak also wrote to satisfy himself – ‘He was telling these stories, as much as to understand the world around him as much as anything else’.[11]

Secondly, both illustrators have been impacted by their own personal histories. Sendak’s characters in Where the Wild Things Are are said to be loosely based on his Polish relatives and his stories inspired by folklore from his Jewish-European background[12]. Similarly Jeffers’ talks about how his upbringing in Northern Ireland is to thank for his love of storytelling[13].

Ireland is famous for its tradition of storytelling that happened on long winter nights at firesides in Irish speaking communities[14]. ‘Coming from Ireland, it really is a place of storytellers, and everybody has some story up their sleeve for any given occasion…so that’s always been a big part of my upbringing’[15]. Jeffers has also been further impacted from growing up in Northern Ireland – he went to Hazelwood College, one of the first schools to welcome children from both religious factions. He used his talent for drawing to keep popular, ‘I would draw on their skateboards’[16] in an otherwise rough school. Living in Northern Ireland also helped encourage Jeffers creativeness outside of school too; ‘Ireland became interested in showing the world that it was on par with the rest of Western Europe…Northern Ireland avoided that…so it had been growing more slowly and, as a result, retained a lot of its authenticity’ – Jeffers explains the creative bubble of Belfast. Additionally Jeffers comments ‘there’s a sense of humour that’s pretty unique to Northern Ireland’ and that his work has ‘undertones…where you can’t really take anything too seriously’[17].

While maintaining his Northern Irish heritage, Oliver Jeffers now lives in New York. He shares a studio block with other artists, recognising that the ‘community aspect is massively important’ for collaboration and motivation[18]. On a day to day basis, Jeffers is quick to say that each day is different. Typically admin work takes up the first part of his day and then he continues with his artwork for as long as he can. Otherwise he likes to go outside and observe street life[19]. The produce of work between days and even year by year changes mostly because he now has to travel more for events and talks. When asked how he fits in all the different aspects of his artwork, Jeffers replied ‘Generally I make one or two picture books a year, illustrate one chapter book, and make a collection of paintings. Other projects (like some of the typographic and film projects) fit in and around this’[20].

As well as making lists (one of his favourite things to do[21]), helping to structure and manage his workload is Jeffers’ wife as she is also his business manager[22]. The decor of both their office/studio and their home reflects Jeffers love of artwork and mismatched textures. Interestingly as a wedding gift to her husband, Suzanne Jeffers commissioned Eric Carle to create a typographic drawing that reads ‘Suzanne hearts Oliver’[23]. Carle is mentioned as one of the influential artists in the extensive list on Jeffers website[24] and it is fair to say Carle has impacted Jeffers in a number of ways.

Firstly, Jeffers remembers that The Bad-Tempered Ladybird by Eric Carle was one of his earliest picture books – ‘It’s about a ladybird who picks fights with increasingly large animals until the last spread where the ladybird picks a fight with a whale…I remember the power in that last spread. After that, I started doing a lot of whale drawings’[25]. There is certainly something very similar about Carle and Jeffers’ whales – the colouring, teeth and eyes in particular. Jeffers was right to be impressed by Carle’s final spread, following this image of the whale head, there is three more double spreads of the length of the body!

Fig. 3, Carle, The Bad-Tempered Ladybird

Fig. 3, Carle, The Bad-Tempered Ladybird

Fig. 4, Jeffers, Stuck

Fig. 4, Jeffers, Stuck

Oliver Jeffers also comments about Carle’s picture book – ‘Eric Carle manages so eloquently to convey a sense of scale.’ In an article by Joanna Carey[26], she argues that Jeffers does this too and particularly mentions this image within his book Lost and Found:

Fig. 5, Jeffers, Lost and Found

Fig. 5, Jeffers, Lost and Found

She talks of the expanse of the ship, which is almost unrecognisable owing to its enormity, with a lighthouse, penguin and the boy all on the same page.[27] This idea of scale and space is very typical in Jeffers’ work, in that there are frequently these expanses of block coloured backgrounds surrounding a very detailed illustration, drawing the eye’s attention to the main action of the page.

In addition to influencing the content of Jeffers’ work (the whales), Carle may have influenced the form of Jeffers’ style. Eric Carle’s style is described as ‘naive and colourful collages – less realistic and yet more imaginative and unusual. Often charmingly crude – as if a child has helped with cutting and placing’.[28] A similar description could be applied to Jeffers’ illustrations – ‘Jeffers’ drawing is childlike…free of extraneous detail, he celebrates the emotional freedom of the child whose imagination is not yet weighed down by the limitations of reality’[29]. Further seen in the lettering he uses, which creates a very immediate connection to the reader – especially a child reader. Jeffers’ lettering is not restricted by format, size or spacing like that of a stylised font, instead it is part of the artwork of each page and for example, here appears to be drawn with a crayon. I think it is particularly the slanted nature of the handwriting that makes it appear child like.

Fig. 6, Jeffers, Stuck

Fig. 6, Jeffers, Stuck

In direct comparison to one of Oliver Jeffers peers, I think it is interesting to look at Lauren Child. In Jeffers’ opinion we are moving away from digital illustration in picture books and they are more ‘tactile and organic in the way in which they appear…whether they use software or not…the actual outcome is anti-digital, in a way’[30].  Jeffers’ illustrations certainly have a handmade quality and he describes how he uses what he thinks ‘is best for the tone and feel of the book’.[31] Jeffers uses watercolours, house paints, acrylics, crayons and collage in his work, the latter being the recognisable style of Lauren Child.

Fig. 7, Child, I am Too absolutely small for school

Fig. 7, Child, I am Too absolutely small for school

Fig. 8, Jeffers, The Incredible Book Eating Boy

Fig. 8, Jeffers, The Incredible Book Eating Boy

I think both of these picture book makers have a very immediate style that is not necessarily planned artwork but more based on expression and this particularly engages with children as they can start to recognise shapes. Jeffers’ characters are very much shape based figures with their twig-like legs, sometimes leaving out facial details, like mouths, and only having dots for eyes. And yet the bare about of detail Jeffers provides is enough to get across the message – apparently it is all in the positioning of the eyes, ‘Quentin Blake has described how… he would make a dot on a tiny piece of paper and move it around with a pin to find exactly the right place’[32].

Fig. 9, Blake, Zagazoo

Fig. 9, Blake, Zagazoo

Jeffers eyes

Fig. 10, Jeffers, The Way Back Home

Previously in the history of children’s book illustration, we have seen drawing of a more detailed style, for example that of John Tenniel and then on to the works of Arthur Rackham. The progression of style within this type of illustration has developed as technology has. Initially there were two mechanical methods of reproducing illustrations – the wood block (the method Tenniel would have used) and copper-plate engraving, the latter being more typically used for individual prints[33]. At the turn of the century (1900) illustrators, Rackham in particular, began to use the new three-colour half-tone printing process. Although this did help Rackham create an ‘atmospheric sense of space’, it was somewhat of a ‘restricted palette’[34]. In this late Victorian/early Edwardian age, the ‘technical developments in printing allowed artists to employ more complex line and subtler colour in the knowledge that these would be reproduced with accuracy’[35] and there is no denying the results are something we will continue to treasure in Illustration history.

Fig. 11, Tenniel, Alice in Wonderland

Fig. 11, Tenniel, Alice in Wonderland

Fig. 12, Rackham, The Widow Whitgift and her Sons

Fig. 12, Rackham, The Widow Whitgift and her Sons

Contrastingly, the ‘simplicity’ of present day children’s book illustrations seem to have progressed with our development in treasuring and stimulating childhood – for example, Claire Walters talked in an interview about different ages liking different visual aspects – ‘Newborns like strong outlines, older babies like realistic, colourful images…toddlers like flaps and pages that open up to bigger pictures. They are easily swayed by visual magic – rhyme, rhythm, repetition…[36]’ This is not something that would have been thought of in Tenniel’s day.  She also explains how Maurice Sendak credited Randolph Caldecott as setting the president of picture books by creating ‘an ingenious juxtaposition of picture and word…words are left out – but the picture says it’[37]. This is said to be the turning point for modern picture book illustration and we can still see it today…

Fig. 13, Jeffers, The Way Back Home

Fig. 13, Jeffers, The Way Back Home

Despite the seemingly simplicity of Jeffers’ style, we should not dismiss his hard work and his wish to develop his drawing techniques. More recently, Jeffers has returned to completing paintings alongside his illustration work and to improve upon this he studied the work of classical painters. For example, that of John Singer Sargent – ‘he could make something seem so alive with so few brushstrokes. It changed the way I thought about painting’[38].

Fig. 14, Sargent, Miss Eliza Wedgwood and Miss Sargent Sketching

Fig. 14, Sargent, Miss Eliza Wedgwood and Miss Sargent Sketching

Oliver Jeffers’ work is certainly about telling a narrative, but his paintings are about asking questions; he describes both of these outlets as ways of expressing his curiosity about the world[39]. First and foremost Jeffers is a painter – ‘I’ve been consistently working on my fine art practice the entire time my picture book career has existed, actually from before.’[40] In 2012, Neither Here Nor There was published, a book which recorded and celebrated Jeffers’ installations, paintings, collages and collaborative work[41]. This year (2013) Jeffers put together the exhibition entitled Nothing to See Here. This show seems to encourage the viewer to ask some questions too as the paintings featured are hidden in some way or have vital bits missing[42]. This is Jeffers response to our current age of being able to instantly access information and that we now come to expect this – ‘he forces us to remember that we must work for the empowerment gained when we are able to draw meaning from art. Knowledge is power, and power must be earned’[43].

Fig. 15, Jeffers, I Can't See You

Fig. 15, Jeffers, I Can’t See You

Jeffers also presents his questions about the world through combining science and maths within his paintings; ‘I started making figurative paintings and then putting mathematical equations in them, to try to look at something both emotionally and logically at the same time’[44].

Fig. 16, Jeffers, Still Life with Light and Lightbulb

Fig. 16, Jeffers, Still Life with Light and Lightbulb

Here Jeffers decided to use the mathematical definition of light in the painting. Perhaps unsurprisingly, a quantum physicist bought the painting and they went on to meet as friends to discuss the meaning of the combined image and equation, which has further helped Jeffers to progress his work[45]. Science is the study of life and just as Jeffers uses it to express his thirst for knowledge, Charley Harper is another illustrator who draws ‘science-oriented illustrations’. His, however, show the exploration of natural organisms and although his work differs from Jeffers’ more realistic painting style, I think it is not too dissimilar to Jeffers’ illustration style – ‘with a bare minimum of elements, colour combinations, patterns, and textures’[46].

Fig. 17, Harper, Beetle Battle

Fig. 17, Harper, Beetle Battle

Alongside of course continuing his picture book work, Jeffers future plans seem to focus mainly on the fine art side of his practice. In the interview he did for The Great Discontent, he explains his plans to further the map drawings he currently does on wood by ‘making something more 3-dimensional…making giant globes of the earth out of wood’[47].

Fig. 18, Jeffers, Everywhere on Earth

Fig. 18, Jeffers, Everywhere on Earth

Additionally, he wants to take his dipped paintings to a new level by dipping them ‘almost entirely into a vat of paint, obscuring it forever’[48].

Fig. 19, Jeffers, Without a Doubt Part 2

Fig. 19, Jeffers, Without a Doubt Part 2

Oliver Jeffers is such an acclaimed and established artist now, that I don’t think he will have any trouble being allowed to drive his career in the direction he hopes to. Jeffers openly admits that he ‘did commercial illustration for a long time, which paid my bills when I was first starting to sell paintings’[49] now he has more choice. Personally I think he has been very clever in producing a number of forms of artwork that have made his name recognisable within the art world. Also the varied number of works he can be associated with only help to see he is not a man afraid of a challenge, perhaps reemphasizing his curiosity – he wants to try everything. Two further projects that Jeffers has completed due to his picture book success cannot go unmentioned. Firstly, his picture book Lost and Found is now a feature length animation[50] and further inspired by his illustrations is a collection of jewellery by Digby and Iona[51]. The jewellery studio is coincidently located in the same building as Jeffers’ studio[52] and so this is a good example of the collaborative work he has got involved in.

Fig. 20, Digby and Iona/Jeffers, Boy necklace

Fig. 20, Digby and Iona/Jeffers, Boy necklace

Through the many articles and interviews I have read about Oliver Jeffers, I came across this particular interview by Gabrielle Blair, in which she comments on how she wished she had asked him more questions just to get more of his words – ‘And then I recognised I was feeling the same way I always feel when I finish one of Oliver’s books…just one more page, please!’[53]. And I would say I am inclined to agree, his illustrations are magical, his paintings are thought provoking and his words are true pieces of wisdom. Therefore I will close with my two favourite things I have read of Oliver’s wise words. Firstly, on storytelling the saying goes, ‘Never let the truth get in the way of a good story…It’s fine to embellish and elaborate’[54]. And finally, a quote that, I think, helps to emphasize the impact of his work and that of other children’s picture book makers. When asked to share the first book that changed him in some way, Oliver Jeffers replied, ‘The BFG…In this book I realised that imagination is the most powerful force on earth’[55].


[1] Silver, Laura, Oliver Jeffer’s Artistic Equation, ‘Never Underdressed’

[2] Jeffers, Oliver, website, About page

[3] Essmaker, Tina, Oliver Jeffers, ‘The Great Discontent’ interview

[4] Brockes, Emma, Interiors: painter’s paradise, ‘The Guardian’

[5] Essmaker, Tina, Oliver Jeffers, ‘The Great Discontent’ interview

[6] Essmaker, Tina, Oliver Jeffers, ‘The Great Discontent’ interview

[7] Hellige, Hendrick & Klanten, Robert, Little Big Books, Illustrations for Children’s Picture Books, p 16

[8] Hellige, Hendrick & Klanten, Robert, Little Big Books, Illustrations for Children’s Picture Books, p 16

[9] Jeffers, Oliver, Maurice Sendak’s jumper and me, ‘The Guardian’

[10] Hellige, Hendrick & Klanten, Robert, Little Big Books, Illustrations for Children’s Picture Books, p 7

[11] Jeffers, Oliver, Maurice Sendak’s jumper and me, ‘The Guardian’

[12] Hellige, Hendrick & Klanten, Robert, Little Big Books, Illustrations for Children’s Picture Books, p 7

[13] Jeffers, Oliver, website, FAQs page, Author Film 2013

[14] McKendry, Eugene, Study Ireland: Storyteller, BBC Northern Ireland Learning

[15] Siddiqui, Tabassum, The March of His Penguin, ‘Macleans’

[16] Brockes, Emma, Interiors: painter’s paradise, ‘The Guardian’

[17] Medley, Mark, Afterword, ‘National Post’

[18] Essmaker, Tina, Oliver Jeffers, ‘The Great Discontent’ interview

[19] Essmaker, Tina, Oliver Jeffers, ‘The Great Discontent’ interview

[20] Jeffers, Oliver, website, downloadable more detailed FAQs

[21] Silver, Laura, Oliver Jeffer’s Artistic Equation, ‘Never Underdressed’

[22] Brockes, Emma, Interiors: painter’s paradise, ‘The Guardian’

[23] Brockes, Emma, Interiors: painter’s paradise, ‘The Guardian’

[24] Jeffers, Oliver, website, downloadable more detailed FAQs

[25] Essmaker, Tina, Oliver Jeffers, ‘The Great Discontent’ interview

[26] Carey, Joanna, Footless and Fancy Free, ‘The Guardian’

[27] Carey, Joanna, Footless and Fancy Free, ‘The Guardian’

[28] Hellige, Hendrick & Klanten, Robert, Little Big Books, Illustrations for Children’s Picture Books, p 8

[29] Carey, Joanna, Footless and Fancy Free, ‘The Guardian’

[30] Siddiqui, Tabassum, The March of His Penguin, ‘Macleans’

[31] Alkayat, Zena, Rising Star, ‘Artists and Illustrators’, p 17

[32] Carey, Joanna, Footless and Fancy Free, ‘The Guardian’

[33] Whalley, Joyce Irene and Chester, Tessa Rose, A History of Children’s Book Illustration, p 13

[34] Wootton, David, The Illustrators, The British Art of Illustration 1800-2007, p 131

[35] Wootton, David, The Illustrators, The British Art of Illustration 1800-2007, p 41

[36] Hellige, Hendrick & Klanten, Robert, Little Big Books, Illustrations for Children’s Picture Books, p 3

[37] Hellige, Hendrick & Klanten, Robert, Little Big Books, Illustrations for Children’s Picture Books, p 4

[38] Alkayat, Zena, Rising Star, ‘Artists and Illustrators’, p 20

[39] Jeffers, Oliver, Telling Stories and Asking Questions, ‘Huffington Post’

[40] Cartwright, James, Oliver Jeffers’ limited-edition monograph is an object of beauty, ‘It’s Nice That’

[41] Jeffers, Oliver, website, Paintings page

[42] Silver, Laura, Oliver Jeffer’s Artistic Equation, ‘Never Underdressed’

[43] Silver, Laura, Oliver Jeffer’s Artistic Equation, ‘Never Underdressed’

[44] Brockes, Emma, Interiors: painter’s paradise, ‘The Guardian’

[45] Brockes, Emma, Interiors: painter’s paradise, ‘The Guardian’

[46] Hellige, Hendrick & Klanten, Robert, Little Big Books, Illustrations for Children’s Picture Books, p 8

[47] Essmaker, Tina, Oliver Jeffers, ‘The Great Discontent’ interview

[48] Essmaker, Tina, Oliver Jeffers, ‘The Great Discontent’ interview

[49] Essmaker, Tina, Oliver Jeffers, ‘The Great Discontent’ interview

[50] Jeffers, Oliver, website, News page

[51] Jeffers, Oliver, website, Shop page

[52] Silver, Laura, Oliver Jeffer’s Artistic Equation, ‘Never Underdressed’ and Digby and Iona website, About page

[53] Blair, Gabrielle, Author Interview: Oliver Jeffers, ‘Design Mom’

[54] Medley, Mark, Afterword, ‘National Post’

[55] Blair, Gabrielle, Author Interview: Oliver Jeffers, ‘Design Mom’

 

Bibliography

Alkayat, Zena (Nov 2012), Rising Star, Artists and Illustrators article, pages 15-20 http://soprojectsinc.com/press/Oliver_Jeffers_Artists&Illustrators_Nov12.pdf [accessed 25/11/13]

Blair, Gabrielle (Nov 2012), Author Interview: Oliver Jeffers, ‘Design Mom’ interview http://www.designmom.com/2012/11/author-interview-oliver-jeffers/ [accessed 25/11/13]

Brockes, Emma (Sept 2013), Interiors: painter’s paradise, ‘The Guardian’ article http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2013/sep/06/homes-oliver-jeffers-new-york [accessed 25/11/13]

Carey, Joanna (Jan 2009), Footless and Fancy Free, ‘The Guardian’ article http://www.theguardian.com/books/2009/jan/24/oliver-jeffers-children-s-books-illustrations-joanna-carey [accessed 25/11/13]

Cartwright, James (Feb 2013), Oliver Jeffers’ limited-edition monograph is an object of beauty, ‘It’s Nice That’ interview http://www.itsnicethat.com/articles/oliver-jeffers-neither-here-nor-there [accessed 25/11/13]

Digby and Iona Jewellery website http://www.digbyandiona.com/about-us/ [accessed 25/11/13]

Essmaker, Tina (March 2013), Oliver Jeffers, ‘The Great Discontent’ interview http://thegreatdiscontent.com/oliver-jeffers [accessed 25/11/13]

Gestalten (2012), Oliver Jeffers: A Quantum of Physics video http://www.gestalten.tv/motion/oliver-jeffers [accessed 25/11/13]

Hellige, Hendrick and Klanten, Robert (2012), Little Big Books, Illustrations for Children’s Picture Books, Gestalten, Berlin

Jeffers, Oliver (Sept 2013), Telling Stories and Asking Questions, ‘Huffington Post’ article http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/oliver-jeffers/oliver-jeffers-exhibition_b_3880767.html [accessed 25/11/13]

Jeffers, Oliver (Feb 2013), Maurice Sendak’s jumper and me, ‘The Guardian’ article http://www.theguardian.com/books/booksblog/2013/feb/14/oliver-jeffers-maurice-sendak-wild-things [accessed 25/11/13]

Jeffers, Oliver, Website http://www.oliverjeffers.com/ [accessed 25/11/13]

Medley, Mark (Feb 2013), Afterword, ‘National Post’ article http://arts.nationalpost.com/2013/02/01/big-lil-pictures-oliver-jeffers-leads-a-new-generation-of-childrens-illustrators/ [accessed 25/11/13]

McKendry, Eugene, Study Ireland: Storyteller, BBC Northern Ireland Learning http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/schools/11_16/storyteller/pdf/gen_notes_all.pdf [accessed 25/11/13]

Pritchard, Rowan and Venables, Lucy (April 2012), Oliver Jeffers interviewed by young writers, ‘The Telegraph’ interview http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/9214288/Oliver-Jeffers-interviewed-by-young-writers.html [accessed 25/11/13]

Siddiqui, Tabassum (Feb 2013), The March of His Penguin, ‘Macleans’ interview http://www2.macleans.ca/2013/02/02/the-darling-of-kids-lit-oliver-jeffers-doesnt-write-with-kids-in-mind/ [accessed 25/11/13]

Silver, Laura (Sept 2013), Oliver Jeffers’ Artistic Equation, ‘Never Underdressed’ article http://www.neverunderdressed.com/people/artist-in-residence/oliver-jeffers-artistic-equation [accessed 25/11/13]

Whalley, Joyce Irene and Chester, Tessa Rose (1988), A History of Children’s Book Illustration, John Murray Ltd, London

Wootton, David and Nickerson, Fiona (2007), The Illustrators, The British Art of Illustration 1800-2007, Chris Beetles Ltd, London

 Images 

Figure 1

Sendak, Maurice (2000), Where the Wild Things Are, Random House Children’s Books, London, page 32

Figure 2

Jeffers, Oliver (2005), How to Catch a Star, HarperCollins Children’s Books, London, front cover 

Figure 3

Carle, Eric (1983), The Bad-Tempered Ladybird, Penguin Books Ltd, Middlesex, pages 28-29

Figure 4

Jeffers, Oliver (2011), Stuck, HarperCollins Children’s Books, London, pages 20-21

Figure 5

Jeffers, Oliver (2006), Lost and Found, HarperCollins Children’s Books, London, page 11

Figure 6

Jeffers, Oliver (2011), Stuck, HarperCollins Children’s Books, London, page 27

Figure 7

Child, Lauren (2004), I am Too absolutely small for school, Orchard Books, London, page 31

Figure 8

Jeffers, Oliver (2006), The Incredible Book Eating Boy, HarperCollins Children’s Books, London, page 11

Figure 9

Blake, Quentin (2000), Zagazoo, Random House Children’s Books, London, page 3

Figure 10

Jeffers, Oliver (2008), The Way Back Home, HarperCollins Children’s Books, London, page 3

Figure 11

John Tenniel, Alice with Tweedledum and Tweedledee http://www.tate.org.uk/context-comment/articles/when-i-use-word-it-means-just-what-i-choose-it-mean [accessed 25/11/13] 

Figure 12

Arthur, Rackham, The Widow Whitgift and her Sons (1906) http://collections.vam.ac.uk/search/?listing_type=&offset=0&limit=15&narrow=&extrasearch=&q=rackham&commit=Search&quality=0&objectnamesearch=&placesearch=&after=&after-adbc=AD&before=&before-adbc=AD&namesearch=&materialsearch=&mnsearch=&locationsearch= [accessed 25/11/13]

Figure 13

Jeffers, Oliver (2008), The Way Back Home, HarperCollins Children’s Books, London, page 17

Figure 14

John Singer Sargent, Miss Eliza Wedgwood and Miss Sargent Sketching (1908)http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/sargent-miss-eliza-wedgwood-and-miss-sargent-sketching-n03658 [accessed 25/11/13]

Figure 15

Oliver Jeffers, I Can’t See You (2013) http://www.oliverjeffers.com/paintings/nothing-to-see-here [accessed 25/11/13]

Figure 16

Oliver Jeffers, Still Life with Light and Lightbulb (2007) http://www.oliverjeffers.com/paintings/additional-information [accessed 25/11/13]

Figure 17

Charley Harper, Beetle Battle https://www.charleyharperprints.com/shop/beetle-battle-acrylic-painting/ [accessed 25/11/13]

Figure 18

Oliver Jeffers, Everywhere on Earth (2011) http://www.oliverjeffers.com/paintings/maps [accessed 25/11/13]

Figure 19

Oliver Jeffers, Without a Doubt Part 2 (2012) http://www.oliverjeffers.com/paintings/dipped-paintings [accessed 25/11/13]

Figure 20

Oliver Jeffers for Digby and Iona, Boy Necklace http://www.ojxdi.com/boynecklace/ [accessed 25/11/13]

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